The Channel Islands

Ohio University, Dr. Thompson’s Plants & People (PBIO1030) course, Fall 2017.

 Animals and Plants on the Islands

The Channel Islands are one of the many US National Parks and are found off the coast of California.  The people who travel to these islands must be able to camp and have food with them because there are no sources of shelter and/or food.  Although beautiful, it can be very dangerous for unprepared visitors.

The animals on this island are not small for the most part, but the largest of the animals are the Catalina Island Bison.  Other than the bison; foxes, mice, lizards, and goats are smaller compared to the bison.  The marine life is much different from the life on land when it comes to the islands.  The marine life can be anything from a lobster to a blue whale.  There are smaller animals on the islands and larger animals in the waters surrounding the islands because there is limited food on the islands, and the water is deep enough and for the most part a fixed temperature.  The animals on the islands do not have to be as large because the foxes are at the top of the food chain and most of the other animals are herbivores looking for whatever food they can find.

Being a visitor to the islands can be tricky considering there is not much food and the people who live there watch out for the animals to make sure that they do not die out.  There are not many people that live on the island, but they do need food.  Thankfully, they live off the coast of California so they get a lot of visitors.  These visitors help them pay for gas to get their food and other essentials from California.  The people who do live there can hunt, the many fish and birds, that come and visit the islands.  The plants can vary on these islands due to the soil and where one may be when on the islands.  There are parts of the island that are dry and hard to grow plants, and there are areas where the soil is very rich and able to grow all kinds of plants.  The areas on the island can vary from grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands.  Whether it be Pines, scrubs, or rare/endangered plants not commonly known in the US, there are many plants on these islands that both benefit the people and the animals native to the land.

Max Greenhalgh

http://blog.survivalsage.com/2015/03/bug-out-to-channel-islands-of-california.html

https://www.nps.gov/chis/index.htm

Supporting Ecosystem Services

The Channel Islands are a series of remote islands off the coast of California and are rich with biodiversity. Supporting services play a very important in making sure that the ecosystem thrives.

One big example of this is the waters encompassing the islands. The surrounding ocean is very nutrient-rich and whirls around the isles, transporting the nutrients to all parts of the ecosystem. These waters are quite colder than the coastal waters so when they combine, an abundant and fertile area for life to thrive is created. Organisms such as plankton grow and provide for the entire food web all the way up to giant whales.

In the wetlands of the islands, nutrients are stored and provide a cornucopia of fertile environment for animals and plants to thrive in. The food plain vegetation provides shelter for various animals such as birds and small fish.

Another main area of the islands is the rocky intertidal zones. As the tide goes low and high throughout the day, these zones change with it. There’s a lot of algal and plant growth within these zones that are home to many marine animals and even some invertebrates.

The various plant brush that surrounds the coats are home to many animals. This brush provides water that it holds with its thickness where many creatures can safely rest and reproduce.

All in all, the mix of all these various ecosystems within the channel islands provide shelter and nutrients that attribute to a vast amount of biodiversity.

Blaze Davis

National Park Service, 6-21 2016 (last updated). Natural Features & Ecosystems. Available: https://www.nps.gov/chis/learn/nature/naturalfeaturesandecosystems.html. Accessed on 10-16-17.

Santa Cruz Island Weeds

The Channel Islands are located off the coast of southern California and are home to many different species of plants which can be seen among the many hiking trails across all five islands. Out of all of the islands, Santa Cruz has the highest variety of plants with a little over 650 plant species scattered across the island ranging from ferns to monocotyledonous flowering plants. This large amount of plants comes with its pros and cons, however, as Santa Cruz is home to 6 moderately invasive plants. These 7 plants are Sweet Fennel, Blue and Red Gum, Yellow Star-Thistle, Olive, Harding Grass and Stone Pine.

The oldest of these 7 plants are the Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus camaldulensis as they were introduced in the 1880s for things such as decoration and fuel. The resources for plants on the island is scarce enough without the Eucalyptus trees taking up space, good soil, and enough water to sustain themselves and spread around the island. The trees prevent native plants from growing by shading soil patches, accumulating deep litter layers, and through making the soil around them toxic to native plant seeds. Another downside to having Eucalyptus globulus and Eucalyptus camaldulensis is that they are extremely flammable and therefore greatly increase the risk of forest fires.

National Parks Service (NPS)

June 17, 2016 (Last Updated)

Terrestrial Invasive Plants https://www.nps.gov/chis/learn/nature/terrestrial-invasive.htm

Accessed October 16, 2017

National Parks Service (NPS)

Brian Thebau

Provisioning Services

The Channel Islands include several and wonderful islands and there are many features that made it unique and created distinctive animals, plants, and archeological resources. These features have been found due to its marine nature and isolation for thousands of years. If we talk about the provisioning services that provided by these islands, we will find many of the distinctive and enjoyable services that people can enjoy and benefit from. A wide range of great activities can be provided by Channel Islands National Park, for example, kayaking across the sea caves is one of the most popular activities that people can enjoy it. In addition, there are many activities available to visitors such as camping, hiking, snorkeling, and spearfishing. Furthermore, People can enjoy the beautiful landscapes of the large number of the beautiful, complex caves of Channel Islands. The provisioning services of Channel Islands are often to enjoy the natural scenery therefore, we will find that services are always related to nature only. Another example of such services that in the summer, visitors can enjoy the whale watching on boat trips. This region has the largest gathering of blue whales in the world in the summer so, this is a great opportunity to attend such events. Some of these islands also offer magnificent kelp forests, marine caves, and bays that can be explored and seen much better when diving and diving. The practice of agriculture, animal husbandry, hunting, military activity and household installations, as well as fires, have led to the alteration of some islands and marine waters to some extent within this biosphere reserve. Unfortunately, there are some drawbacks to these islands, where there are no goods or services available in those islands such as public telephones. There is limited food service on some boats. Therefore, visitors and tourists must bring

food, water, and other needs. In conclusion, in short, the vast wealth of natural resources found on the Island Islands National Park offers incredible opportunities and unrivaled isolation, tranquility, wildlife watching, outdoor recreation, appreciation of natural history and environmental education.

Ameer Al Bekari

Water treatment

Water treatment is the foundation for whole the world, and the total of used water around 6000 people per day. There is a significate of how used the water with their domestic such as garden and washing in summer. Also, the number of people who used the water increased per year. Unfortunately, the problem was in 1940 mainly happened caused by the manual operation, and it effects algal activity. The solution of waterworks was considered by three things. Build new WTW, 2. Refurbish the existing plant, 3. Retrofit a new, or different, technology into the existing works. These are the solution of WTW. In February of 2004, the first of the clarifiers (called Train 4) was retrofitted with six membrane cassettes and the resulting water was blended with the final treated water. In 2004, the new plant type was very useful for science, and they made new member for plat which cleaning the water for people and the plant. The technological change brought with it some challenges as a thing, and it became accustomed kind for the new plant.

Also, the expert was invited to the new member plant to see who the water machine works, and they were giving advice for them. The expert was entering the operation and they wanted to block the membranes. As result to remove the fouling, it was important to clean the member chemically with both sodium hypochlorite and acid. By the end of the operation, it took them until the end of 2004 to switch the coagulant get membrane back to their original situation during the membranes had been taking out of the cleaning. So finally the colder condition water become 6-8 1C by causing the velum to tighten up and hence exhibit raised TMP.

Mohammed Aldhahab

Reference Redhead, Andrew. Water and Environment Journal. June 2008, Vol. 22 Issue 2, p75, 6 p.